We introduce the concept of design continuums for the data layout of key-value stores. A design continuum unifies major distinct data structure designs under the same model. The critical insight and potential long-term impact is that such unifying models 1)~render what we consider up to now as fundamentally different data structures to be seen as ``views'' of the very same overall design space, and 2)~allow ``seeing'' new data structure designs with performance properties that are not feasible by existing designs. The core intuition behind the construction of design continuums is that all data structures arise from the very same set of fundamental design principles, i.e., a small set of data layout design concepts out of which we can synthesize any design that exists in the literature as well as new ones. We show how to construct, evaluate, and expand, design continuums and we also present the first continuum that unifies major data structure designs, i.e., B+Tree, BeTree, LSM-tree, and LSH-Table.
The practical benefit of a design continuum is that it creates a fast inference engine for the design of data structures. For example, we can near instantly predict how a specific design change in the underlying storage of a data system would affect performance, or reversely what would be the optimal data structure (from a given set of designs) given workload characteristics and a memory budget. In turn, these properties allow us to envision a new class of self-designing key-value stores with a substantially improved ability to adapt to workload and hardware changes by transitioning between drastically different data structure designs to assume a diverse set of performance properties at will.
In this paper, we show that key-value stores backed by a log-structured merge-tree (LSM-tree) exhibit an intrinsic trade-off between lookup cost, update cost, and main memory footprint, yet all existing designs expose a suboptimal and difficult to tune trade-off among these metrics. We pinpoint the problem to the fact that modern key-value stores suboptimally co-tune the merge policy, the buffer size, and the Bloom filters’ false positive rates across the LSM-tree’s different levels.
We present Monkey, an LSM-tree based key-value store that strikes the optimal balance between the costs of updates and lookups with any given main memory budget. The core insight is that worst-case lookup cost is proportional to the sum of the false positive rates of the Bloom filters across all levels of the LSM-tree. Contrary to state-of-the-art key-value stores that assign a fixed number of bits-per-element to all Bloom filters, Monkey allocates memory to filters across different levels so as to minimize the sum of their false positive rates. We show analytically that Monkey reduces the asymptotic complexity of the worst-case lookup I/O cost, and we verify empirically using an implementation on top of RocksDB that Monkey reduces lookup latency by an increasing margin as the data volume grows (50% − 80% for the data sizes we experimented with). Furthermore, we map the design space onto a closed-form model that enables adapting the merging frequency and memory allocation to strike the best trade-off among lookup cost, update cost and main memory, depending on the workload (proportion of lookups and updates), the dataset (number and size of entries), and the underlying hardware (main memory available, disk vs. flash). We show how to use this model to answer what-if design questions about how changes in environmental parameters impact performance and how to adapt the design of the key-value store for optimal performance.
We describe the vision of being able to reason about the design space of data structures. We break this down into two questions: 1) Can we know all data structures that is possible to design? 2) Can we compute the performance of arbitrary designs on a given hardware and workload without having to implement the design or even access the target hardware? If those challenges are possible, then an array of exciting opportunities would become feasible such as interactive what-if design to improve the productivity of data systems researchers and engineers, and informed decision making in industrial settings with regards to critical ardware/workload/data structure design issues. Then, even fully automated discovery of new data structure designs becomes possible. Furthermore, the structure of the design space itself provides numerous insights and opportunities such as the existence of design continuums that can lead to data systems with deep adaptivity, and a new understanding of the possible performance trade-offs. Given the universal presence of data structures at the very core of any data-driven field across all sciences and industries, reasoning about their design can have significant benefits, making it more feasible (easier, faster and cheaper) to adopt tailored state-of-the-art storage solutions. And this effect is going to become increasingly more critical as data keeps growing, hardware keeps changing and more applications/fields realize the transformative power and potential of data analytics. This paper presents this vision and surveys first steps that demonstrate its feasibility.
Query optimizers depend heavily on statistics representing column distributions to create good query plans. In many cases, though, statistics are outdated or non-existent, and the process of refreshing statistics is very expensive, especially for ad-hoc work- loads on ever bigger data. This results in suboptimal plans that severely hurt performance. The core of the problem is the fixed decision on the type of physical operators that comprise a query plan.
This paper makes a case for continuous adaptation and morphing of physical operators throughout their lifetime, by adjusting their behavior in accordance with the observed statistical properties of the data at run- time. We demonstrate the benefits of the new paradigm by designing and implementing an adaptive access path operator called Smooth Scan, which morphs continuously within the space of index access and full table scan. Smooth Scan behaves similarly to an index scan for low selectivity; if selectivity increases, however, Smooth Scan progressively morphs its behavior toward a sequential scan. As a result, a system with Smooth Scan requires no optimization decisions on the access paths up front. Additionally, by depending only on the result distribution and eschewing statistics and cardinality estimates altogether, Smooth Scan ensures repeatable execution across multiple query invocations. Smooth Scan implemented in PostgreSQL demonstrates robust, near-optimal performance on micro-benchmarks and real-life workloads, while being statistics-oblivious at the same time.
We show that all mainstream LSM-tree based key-value stores in the literature and in industry suboptimally trade between the I/O cost of updates on one hand and the I/O cost of lookups and storage space on the other. The reason is that they perform equally expensive merge operations across all levels of LSM-tree to bound the number of runs that a lookup has to probe and to remove obsolete entries to reclaim storage space. With state-of-the-art designs, however, merge operations from all levels of LSM-tree but the largest (i.e., most merge operations) reduce point lookup cost, long range lookup cost, and storage space by a negligible amount while significantly adding to the amortized cost of updates.
To address this problem, we introduce Lazy Leveling, a new design that removes merge operations from all levels of LSM-tree but the largest. Lazy Leveling improves the worst-case complexity of update cost while maintaining the same bounds on point lookup cost, long range lookup cost, and storage space. We further introduce Fluid LSM-tree, a generalization of the entire LSM-tree design space that can be parameterized to assume any existing design. Relative to Lazy Leveling, Fluid LSM-tree can optimize more for updates by merging less at the largest level, or it can optimize more for short range lookups by merging more at all other levels.
We put everything together to design Dostoevsky, a key-value store that adaptively removes superfluous merging by navigating the Fluid LSM-tree design space based on the application workload and hardware. We implemented Dostoevsky on top of RocksDB, and we show that it strictly dominates state-of-the-art designs in terms of performance and storage space.
While numerous indexing and storage schemes have been developed to address the core functionality of predicate evaluation in data systems, they all require specific workload properties (query selectivity, data distribution, data clustering) to provide good performance and fail in other cases. We present a new class of indexing scheme, termed a Column Sketch, which improves the performance of predicate evaluation independently of workload properties. Column Sketches work primarily through the use of lossy compression schemes which are designed so that the index ingests data quickly, evaluates any query performantly, and has small memory footprint. A Column Sketch works by applying this lossy compression on a value-by-value basis, mapping base data to a representation of smaller fixed width codes. Queries are evaluated affirmatively or negatively for the vast majority of values using the compressed data, and only if needed check the base data for the remaining values. Column Sketches work over column, row, and hybrid storage layouts.
We demonstrate that by using a Column Sketch, the select operator in modern analytic systems attains better CPU efficiency and less data movement than state-of-the-art storage and indexing schemes. Compared to standard scans, Column Sketches provide an improvement of 3×-6× for numerical attributes and 2.7× for categorical attributes. Compared to state-of-the-art scan accelera- tors such as Column Imprints and BitWeaving, Column Sketches perform 1.4 - 4.8× better.
Data structures are critical in any data-driven scenario, but they are notoriously hard to design due to a massive design space and the dependence of performance on workload and hardware which evolve continuously. We present a design engine, the Data Calculator, which enables interactive and semi-automated design of data structures. It brings two innovations. First, it offers a set of fine-grained design primitives that capture the first principles of data layout design: how data structure nodes lay data out, and how they are positioned relative to each other. This allows for a structured description of the universe of possible data structure designs that can be synthesized as combinations of those primitives. The second innovation is computation of performance using learned cost models. These models are trained on diverse hardware and data profiles and capture the cost properties of fundamental data access primitives (e.g., random access). With these models, we synthesize the performance cost of complex operations on arbitrary data structure designs without having to: 1) implement the data structure, 2) run the workload, or even 3) access the target hardware. We demonstrate that the Data Calculator can assist data structure designers and researchers by accurately answering rich what-if design questions on the order of a few seconds or minutes, i.e., computing how the performance (response time) of a given data structure design is impacted by variations in the: 1) design, 2) hardware, 3) data, and 4) query workloads. This makes it effortless to test numerous designs and ideas before embarking on lengthy implementation, deployment, and hardware acquisition steps. We also demonstrate that the Data Calculator can synthesize entirely new designs, auto-complete partial designs, and detect suboptimal design choices.
During exploratory statistical analysis, data scientists repeatedly compute statistics on data sets to infer knowledge. Moreover, statistics form the building blocks of core machine learning classification and filtering algorithms. Modern data systems, software libraries, and domain-specific tools provide support to compute statistics but lack a cohesive framework for storing, organizing, and reusing them. This creates a significant problem for exploratory statistical analysis as data grows: Despite existing overlap in exploratory workloads (which are repetitive in nature), statistics are always computed from scratch. This leads to repeated data movement and recomputation, hindering interactive data exploration.
We address this challenge in Data Canopy, where descriptive and dependence statistics are synthesized from a library of basic aggregates. These basic aggregates are stored within an in-memory data structure, and are reused for overlapping data parts and for various statistical measures. What this means for exploratory statistical analysis is that repeated requests to compute different statistics do not trigger a full pass over the data. We discuss in detail the basic design elements in Data Canopy, which address multiple challenges: (1) How to decompose statistics into basic aggregates for maximal reuse? (2) How to represent, store, maintain, and access these basic aggregates? (3) Under different scenarios, which basic aggregates to maintain? (4) How to tune Data Canopy in a hardware conscious way for maximum performance and how to maintain good performance as data grows and memory pressure increases?
We demonstrate experimentally that Data Canopy results in an average speed-up of at least 10× after just 100 exploratory queries when compared with state-of-the-art systems used for exploratory statistical analysis.
In this paper, we show that key-value stores backed by an LSM-tree exhibit an intrinsic trade-off between lookup cost, update cost, and main memory footprint, yet all existing designs expose a suboptimal and difficult to tune trade-off among these metrics. We pinpoint the problem to the fact that all modern key-value stores suboptimally co-tune the merge policy, the buffer size, and the Bloom filters’ false positive rates in each level.
We present Monkey, an LSM-based key-value store that strikes the optimal balance between the costs of updates and lookups with any given main memory budget. The insight is that worst-case lookup cost is proportional to the sum of the false positive rates of the Bloom filters across all levels of the LSM-tree. Contrary to state-of-the-art key-value stores that assign a fixed number of bits-per-element to all Bloom filters, Monkey allocates memory to filters across different levels so as to minimize this sum. We show analytically that Monkey reduces the asymptotic complexity of the worst-case lookup I/O cost, and we verify empirically using an implementation on top of LevelDB that Monkey reduces lookup latency by an increasing margin as the data volume grows (50% − 80% for the data sizes we experimented with). Furthermore, we map the LSM-tree design space onto a closed-form model that enables co-tuning the merge policy, the buffer size and the filters’ false positive rates to trade among lookup cost, update cost and/or main memory, depending on the workload (proportion of lookups and updates), the dataset (number and size of entries), and the underlying hardware (main memory available, disk vs. flash). We show how to use this model to answer what-if design questions about how changes in environmental parameters impact performance and how to adapt the various LSM-tree design elements accordingly.
The advent of columnar data analytics engines fueled a series of optimizations on the scan operator. New designs include column-group storage, vectorized execution, shared scans, working directly over compressed data, and operating using SIMD and multi-core execution. Larger main memories and deeper cache hierarchies increase the efficiency of modern scans, prompting a revisit of the question of access path selection.
In this paper, we compare modern sequential scans and secondary index scans. Through detailed analytical modeling and experimentation we show that while scans have become useful in more cases than before, both access paths are still useful, and so, access path selection (APS) is still required to achieve the best performance when considering variable workloads. We show how to perform access path selection. In particular, contrary to the way traditional systems choose between scans and secondary indexes, we find that in addition to the query selectivity, the underlying hardware, and the system design, modern optimizers also need to take into account query concurrency. We further discuss the implications of integrating access path selection in a modern analytical data system. We demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that using the proposed model a system can quickly perform access path selection, outperforming solutions that rely on a single access path or traditional access path models. We outline a light-weight mechanism to integrate APS into main-memory analytical systems that does not interfere with low latency queries. We also use the APS model to explain how the division between sequential scan and secondary index scan has historically changed due to hardware and workload changes, which allows for future projections based on hardware advancements.
For thousands of years science happens in a rather manual way. Mathematics, engineering and computer science provide the means to automate some of the laborious tasks that have to do with computation, data collection and management, and to some degree predictability. As scientific fields grow more mature, though, and scientists over-specialize a new problem appears that has to do with the core of the scientific process rather with the supporting steps. It becomes increasingly harder to be aware of all research concepts and techniques that may apply to a given problem.
Numerous applications continuously produce big amounts of data series, and in several time critical scenarios analysts need to be able to query these data as soon as they become available. This, however, is not currently possible with the state-of-the-art indexing methods and for very large data series collections. In this paper, we present the first adaptive indexing mechanism, specifically tailored to solve the problem of indexing and querying very large data series collections. We present a detailed design and evaluation of our method using approximate and exact query algorithms with both synthetic and real datasets. Adaptive indexing significantly outperforms previous solutions, gracefully handling large data series collections, reducing the data to query delay: by the time state-of-the-art indexing techniques finish indexing 1 billion data series (and before answering even a single query), our method has already answered 3 ∗ 105 queries.
Datasystems with adaptive storage can autonomously change their behavior by altering how data is stored and accessed. Such systems have been studied primarily for the case of adaptive indexing to auto- matically create the right indexes at the right granularity. More recently work on adaptive loading and adaptive data layouts brought even more flexibility. We survey this work and describe the need for even deeper adaptivity that goes beyond adjusting knobs in a single architecture; instead it can adapt the fundamental architecture of a data system to drastically alter its behavior.
The volume of metadata needed by a flash translation layer (FTL) is proportional to the storage capacity of a flash device. Ideally, this metadata should reside in the device’s integrated RAM to enable fast access. However, as flash devices scale to terabytes, the necessary volume of metadata is exceeding the available integrated RAM. Moreover, recovery time after power failure, which is proportional to the size of the metadata, is becoming impractical. The simplest solution is to persist more metadata in flash. The problem is that updating metadata in flash increases the amount of internal IOs thereby harming performance and device lifetime.
In this paper, we identify a key component of the metadata called the Page Validity Bitmap (PVB) as the bottleneck. PVB is used by the garbage-collectors of state-of-the-art FTLs to keep track of which physical pages in the device are invalid. PVB constitutes 95% of the FTL’s RAM-resident metadata, and recovering PVB after power fails takes a significant proportion of the overall recovery time. To solve this problem, we propose a page-associative FTL called GeckoFTL, whose central innovation is replacing PVB with a new data structure called Logarithmic Gecko. Logarithmic Gecko is similar to an LSM-tree in that it first logs updates and later reorganizes them to ensure fast and scalable access time. Relative to the baseline of storing PVB in flash, Logarithmic Gecko enables cheaper updates at the cost of slightly more expensive garbage-collection queries. We show that this is a good trade-off because (1) updates are intrinsically more frequent than garbage-collection queries to page validity metadata, and (2) flash writes are more expensive than flash reads. We demonstrate analytically and empirically through simulation that GeckoFTL achieves a 95% reduction in space requirements and at least a 51% reduction in recovery time by storing page validity metadata in flash while keeping the contribution to internal IO overheads 98% lower than the baseline.
As modern main-memory optimized data systems increasingly rely on fast scans, lightweight indexes that allow for data skipping play a crucial role in data filtering to reduce system I/O. Scans benefit from data skipping when the data order is sorted, semi-sorted, or comprised of clustered values. However data skipping loses effectiveness over arbitrary data distributions. Applying data skipping techniques over non-sorted data can significantly decrease query performance since the extra cost of metadata reads result in no corresponding scan performance gains. We introduce adaptive data skipping as a framework for structures and techniques that respond to a vast array of data distributions and query workloads. We reveal an adaptive zonemaps design and implementation on a main-memory column store prototype to demonstrate that adaptive data skipping has potential for 1.4X speedup.
Database researchers and practitioners have been building methods to store, access, and update data for more than five decades. Designing access methods has been a constant effort to adapt to the ever changing underlying hardware and workload requirements. The recent explosion in data system designs – including, in addition to traditional SQL systems, NoSQL, NewSQL, and other relational and non-relational systems – makes understanding the tradeoffs of designing access methods more important than ever. Access methods are at the core of any new data system. In this tutorial we survey recent developments in access method design and we place them in the design space where each approach focuses primarily on one or a subset of read performance, update performance, and memory utilization. We discuss how to utilize designs and lessons-learned from past research. In addition, we discuss new ideas on how to build access methods that have tunable behavior, as well as, what is the scenery of open research problems.
Joins have traditionally been the most expensive database operator, but they are required to query normalized schemas. In turn, normalized schemas are necessary to minimize update costs and space usage. Joins can be avoided altogether by using a denormalized schema instead of a normalized schema; this improves analytical query processing times at the tradeoff of increased update overhead, loading cost, and storage requirements.
In our work, we show that we can achieve the best of both worlds by leveraging partial, incremental, and dynamic denormalized tables to avoid join operators, resulting in fast query performance while retaining the minimized loading, update, and storage costs of a normalized schema. We introduce adaptive denormalization for modern main memory systems. We replace the traditional join operations with efficient scans over the relevant partial universal tables without incur- ring the prohibitive costs of full denormalization.
Bitmap indexes are widely used in both scientific and commercial databases. They bring fast read performance for specific types of queries, such as equality and selective range queries. A major drawback of bitmap indexes, however, is that supporting updates is particularly costly. Bitmap indexes are kept compressed to minimize storage footprint; as a result, updating a bitmap index requires the expensive step of decoding and then encoding a bitvector. Today, more and more applications need support for both reads and writes, blurring the boundaries between analytical processing and transaction processing. This requires new system designs and access methods that support general updates and, at the same time, offer competitive read performance.
In this paper, we propose scalable in-memory Updatable Bitmap indexing (UpBit), which offers efficient updates, without hurting read performance. UpBit relies on two design points. First, in addition to the main bitvector for each domain value, UpBit maintains an update bitvector, to keep track of updated values. Effectively, every update can now be directed to a highly-compressible, easy-to-update bitvector. While update bitvectors double the amount of uncompressed data, they are sparse, and as a result their compressed size is small. Second, we introduce fence pointers in all update bitvectors which allow for efficient retrieval of a value at an arbitrary position. Using both synthetic and real-life data, we demonstrate that UpBit significantly outperforms state-of-the-art bitmap indexes for workloads that contain both reads and writes. In particular, compared to update-optimized bitmap index designs UpBit is 15 − 29× faster in terms of update time and 2.7× faster in terms of read performance. In addition, compared to read-optimized bitmap index designs UpBit achieves efficient and scalable updates (51 − 115× lower update latency), while allowing for comparable read performance, having up to 8% overhead.
Today, outsourcing query processing tasks to remote cloud servers becomes a viable option; such outsourcing calls for encrypting data stored at the server so as to render it secure against eavesdropping adversaries and/or an honest-but-curious server itself. At the same time, to be efficiently managed, outsourced data should be indexed, and even adaptively so, as a side-effect of query pro- cessing. Computationally heavy encryption schemes render such outsourcing unattractive; an alternative, Order-Preserving Encryption Scheme (OPES), intentionally preserves and reveals the order in the data, hence is unattractive from the security viewpoint. In this paper, we propose and analyze a scheme for lightweight and indexable encryption, based on linear-algebra operations. Our scheme provides higher security than OPES and allows for range and point queries to be efficiently evaluated over encrypted numeric data, with decryption performed at the client side. We implement a prototype that performs incremental, query-triggered adaptive indexing over encrypted numeric data based on this scheme, without leaking order information in advance, and without prohibitive overhead, as our extensive experimental study demonstrates.
The database research community has been building methods to store, access, and update data for more than four decades. Throughout the evolution of the structures and techniques used to access data, access methods adapt to the ever changing hardware and workload requirements. Today, even small changes in the workload or the hardware lead to a redesign of access methods. The need for new designs has been increasing as data generation and workload diversification grow exponentially, and hardware advances introduce increased complexity. New workload requirements are introduced by the emergence of new applications, and data is managed by large systems composed of more and more complex and heterogeneous hardware. As a result, it is increasingly important to develop application-aware and hardware-aware access methods.
The fundamental challenges that every researcher, systems architect, or designer faces when designing a new access method are how to minimize, i) read times (R), ii) update cost (U), and iii) memory (or storage) overhead (M). In this paper, we conjecture that when optimizing the read-update-memory overheads, optimizing in any two areas negatively impacts the third. We present a simple model of the RUM overheads, and we articulate the RUM Conjecture. We show how the RUM Conjecture manifests in state-of-the-art access methods, and we envision a trend toward RUM-aware access methods for future data systems.