Adaptive indexing initializes and optimizes indexes incrementally, as a side effect of query processing. The goal is to achieve the benefits of indexes while hiding or minimizing the costs of index creation. However, index-optimizing side effects seem to turn read-only queries into update transactions that might, for example, create lock contention. This paper studies concurrency control and recovery in the context of adaptive indexing. We show that the design and implementation of adaptive indexing rigorously separates index structures from index contents; this relaxes constraints and requirements during adaptive indexing compared to those of traditional index updates. Our design adapts to the fact that an adaptive index is refined continuously and exploits any concurrency opportunities in a dynamic way. A detailed experimental analysis demonstrates that (a) adaptive indexing maintains its adaptive properties even when running concurrent queries, (b) adaptive indexing can exploit the opportunity for parallelism due to concurrent queries, (c) the number of concurrency conflicts and any concurrency administration overheads follow an adaptive behavior, decreasing as the workload evolves and adapting to the workload needs.